Broadcasting

Inquiry report

This inquiry report was released on 11 April 2000 and considers certain basic principles applied to different aspects of Australian broadcasting regulation.

See also

Contents

Preliminaries
Cover, Copyright, Signing Page, Terms of reference, Disclosure of interests, Contents, Abbreviations, Glossary

PART I   EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES

Executive Summaries
Key messages, Overview, Summary of recommendations

PART II   THE NEED FOR CHANGE

1   Reviewing broadcasting regulation
1.1   Regulating broadcasting
1.2   This inquiry
1.3   The Commission’s approach
1.4   Objectives of Australian broadcasting regulation
1.5   Australia’s broadcasting regulators
1.6   Broadcasting policy principles

2   The structure of Australian broadcasting
2.1   Consumption of media services
2.2   Sectors of the broadcasting industry
2.3   Financial structure of broadcasting services
2.4   Profitability of broadcasting
2.5   Conclusions

3   Convergence
3.1   The nature of convergence
3.2   Convergence: a closer look
3.3   Towards policy convergence

PART III   AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING INDUSTRIES

4   Advertising’s role in broadcasting
4.1   Expenditure on advertising in Australia
4.2   The economics of Australia’s advertising market
4.3   Role of advertising in Australia’s evolving media
4.4   Conclusion

5   Australia’s audiovisual production industry
5.1   Types of audiovisual production
5.2   World market for audiovisual programs
5.3   Australian audiovisual market
5.4   International competitiveness
5.5   Australian government assistance to film and television production

PART IV   OPENING UP THE SPECTRUM

6   Managing Australia’s broadcasting spectrum
6.1   The role of broadcasting licences
6.2   Managing broadcasting spectrum
6.3   Licence fees
6.4   Spectrum access
6.5   Pricing broadcasting spectrum
6.6   Allocating broadcast spectrum
6.7   Improving spectrum management
6.8   Improving spectrum licensing
6.9   Conclusion

7   From analog to digital
7.1   What is digital television?
7.2   The current policy framework
7.3   From analog to digital television
7.4   A new regulatory framework for digital television
7.5   Towards digital radio

PART V   DIVERSITY, CONCENTRATION AND COMPETITION

8   Structural diversity in Australian broadcasting
8.1   Structural diversity
8.2   National broadcasters
8.3   Community broadcasters
8.4   Indigenous broadcasters
8.5   Subscription television broadcasters
8.6   Narrowcasters

9   Concentration, diversity and regulatory barriers to entry
9.1   Concentration and diversity
9.2   Regulatory restrictions on entry
9.3   Reasons for restricting entry
9.4   Effects of restrictions on entry
9.5   Conclusion and recommendations

10   Ownership and control
10.1   Introduction
10.2   Foreign ownership and control rules
10.3   Cross-media rules
10.4   Audience reach and regional operators
10.5   Limits on the number of licences
10.6   Access to essential services

PART VI   PROGRAM CONTENT AND STANDARDS

11   Australian content regulation
11.1   Objectives of Australian content regulation
11.2   Current content regulation system
11.3   Compliance with content regulation
11.4   Access, diversity and content regulation
11.5   Effects of Australian content quotas
11.6   Australian content regulation and the future of broadcasting

12   Television broadcasting of sport
12.1   Broadcasting of sport in Australia
12.2   Relationship between broadcasting and sport
12.3   Restrictions on sport broadcasting
12.4   Is migration a problem?
12.5   Conclusion and recommendations

13   Codes, conditions and compliance
13.1   Managing the influence of broadcasters
13.2   Promoting freedom of expression
13.3   The BSA and co-regulation
13.4   Broadcasting codes of practice
13.5   Fair and accurate coverage
13.6   Consultation
13.7   Complaints
13.8   Enforcement
13.9   Regulation of online content

PART VII APPENDICES

A   Conduct of the inquiry

B   Licence conditions and fees
National broadcasting services
Commercial television and radio broadcasting licences
Community television and radio broadcasting licences
Subscription television broadcasting licences
Class licences for subscription broadcasting and narrowcasting
Other broadcasting services

C   The Indigenous broadcasting sector
Dr Michael Meadows Australian Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy
Introduction
Scope of current scholarship
Analytical and methodological frameworks for evaluating Indigenous media
Existing policy: history, objectives, implementation and achievement
Implications of technological change
Relevant international models
Policy options
Selected annotated bibliography

D   Digital radio broadcasting
Development of digital radio
Digital technology
Overseas experience

E   Cross-ownership and control rules in other countries

F   Content regulation in other countries

References

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