Public Support for Science and Innovation

Research report

This research report was released on 27 March 2007.

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Cover, Copyright, Foreword, Terms of reference, Contents, Abbreviations, Overview , Key points, Findings

1 Introduction
1.1 Why is this study timely?
1.2 What we are not doing
1.3 What is science and innovation?
1.4 Participation in the study
1.5 Structure of the report

2 A snapshot of Australia's science and innovation system
2.1 Introduction
2.2 An overview of investment in knowledge capital
2.3 Government undertakes R&D
2.4 Governments are major funders of R&D
2.5 A plurality of modes of delivery
2.6 Where are resources allocated?
2.7 The business perspective
2.8 Public support and conduct is in flux
2.9 The international perspective

3 Rationales for public support
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Why do rationales matter?
3.3 Knowledge spillovers - the conventional rationale
3.4 Spillovers from basic research
3.5 Spillovers from commercially-oriented research
3.6 The paradoxical role of the service sector
3.7 The bottom line on spillovers as a rationale
3.8 R&D as an input into government activities
3.9 Intangible values: a cultured and worthwhile society
3.10 Risk, uncertainty and capital markets
3.11 Tackling myopia and information deficiencies
3.12 Successful firms and transformed industries
3.13 Evolutionary theories and the 'innovation system' approach
3.14 Empirical rationales for support
3.15 There are some dissenters
3.15 Bottom lines

4 Impacts
4.1 Introduction
4.2 What is meant by 'impacts'?
4.3 How much additional R&D does public support elicit?
4.4 The macro evidence on economic impacts
4.5 What do quantitative case studies suggest about the impacts of public support?
4.6 Environmental impacts
4.7 Social and health impacts
4.8 Other impacts
4.9 What are the implications of good returns to public support?

5 Impediments to the functioning of the innovation system
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Government policy and regulation
5.3 Intellectual property rights
5.4 Research infrastructure
5.5 Privacy regulation
5.6 Ethical review of health and medical research
5.7 Access to the results of publicly-funded research

6 Workforce issues
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Numbers of scientists, engineers and teachers
6.3 Working conditions and job satisfaction

7 Commercialisation and utilisation
7.1 What does the evidence show?
7.2 Perceived impediments within universities
7.3 Institutional and policy responses outside universities
7.4 Policies aimed at businesses alone
7.5 An overall assessment of the impediments to commercialisation

8 Performance evaluation and benchmarking
8.1 The importance of evaluation
8.2 A conceptual framework
8.3 Improving evaluation
8.4 Adequacy of current arrangements

9 Funding levels, funding mix and coordination issues
9.1 The role for international comparisons and targets
9.2 How much to spend in total?
9.3 The balance between basic and applied R&D
9.4 The decision making environment
9.5 Coordination
9.6 National research priorities

10 Business programs
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Elements of good program design
10.3 Overview of business sector support
10.4 R&D tax concession
10.5 Competitive grants programs
10.6 State Government support
10.7 Rural Research and Development Corporations
10.8 Automotive Competitiveness and Investment Scheme
10.9 Public-private partnerships

11 Public Sector Research Agencies
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Are CSIRO's processes effective in targeting the right research projects?
11.3 Are CSIRO's funding arrangements appropriate?
11.4 Are there any lessons from CSIRO's approach for other parts of Australia's research sector?
11.5 Defence Science and Technology Organisation
11.6 DSTO's role
11.7 Should DSTO contract-out more research?

12 Funding of higher education research
12.1 Current funding arrangements
12.2 Rationales for different funding streams
12.3 The balance of funding
12.4 The proposed Research Quality Framework
12.5 Alternative block funding approaches
12.6 Allocating competitive funds

A Participation
A.1 Discussions and presentations
A.2 Roundtable participants
A.3 List of submissions

B Major Australian Government support
B.1 Budget data
B.2 Appropriateness of the data

C International comparisons and R&D targets
C.1 OECD R&D targets
C.2 How does Australia compare?
C.3 The role of industry structure
C.4 Firm size
C.5 Researcher wages
C.6 Public support
C.7 Other measures of innovativeness
C.8 Conclusion

D Absorption costs

E Multifactor productivity

F Static models of multifactor productivity

G Semi-parametric estimates of the impact of R&D
G.1 Method
G.2 Construction of observable R&D stocks
G.3 Estimation and results
G.4 Implications
G.5 Some cautions
G.6 Conclusion

H State level panel data estimation of the returns to public and private R&D
H.1 Background
H.2 Data construction
H.3 Descriptive statistics
H.4 Econometric analysis

I What can be learnt from cost-benefit case studies?
I.1 Overview of cost-benefit analysis methods used in case studies
I.2 Findings from cost-benefit studies of returns to publicly funded research
I.3 Lessons from cost-benefit case studies

J Patent and innovation indicators
J.1 Patent indicators
J.2 Innovation Index
J.3 Innovation counts and surveys

K Publications and scientific performance
K.1 Introduction
K.2 Australia's international performance
K.3 Distribution of Australia's research effort
K.4 Collaboration

L Science and innovation workforce
L.1 Supply issues
L.2 Demand issues

M Does public support elicit additional R&D?
M.1 Introduction
M.2 The first mechanism - lowering the price of business R&D investments
M.3 The second mechanism - competitive grants
M.4 The third mechanism - publicly undertaken R&D
M.5 Summary

N Intellectual property system
N.1 Patents
N.2 Institutions

O Research infrastructure expenditure

P Privacy Act 1988
P.1 Introduction
P.2 Provisions applying to health information and medical research
P.3 Recent reviews

Q Privacy legislation

R Business innovation determinants
R.1 Background to the data
R.2 Estimation strategy
R.3 Regression results

S R&D expenditure by State and Territory
S.1 Level of R&D expenditure
S.2 Focus of R&D expenditure
S.3 Publications by State and Territory

T R&D support and 'transformational firms'
T.1 Public support for R&D and the role of 'transformational firms'
T.2 Data matching results
T.3 Implications and further work