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Report on Government Services 2016

Chapter 8, Volume C

Corrective services

The Corrective services chapter (chapter 8) reports on prison custody and a range of community corrections orders and programs for adult offenders which are delivered separately by the eight States and Territories.

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  • Key Facts
  • Indicator Framework
  • Indicator Results
  • Indigenous Data

This chapter reports on prison custody and a range of community corrections orders and programs for adult offenders which are delivered separately by the eight States and Territories.

  • In 2014-15, on average 34 982 people per day were held in Australian prisons — an increase of 7.0 per cent from 2013-14. Nationally, 18.3 per cent of the total prisoner population (excluding periodic detainees) were held in privately operated facilities. Males comprised 92.2 per cent of all prisoners in prison custody in Australia and 7.8 per cent were females. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners comprised 27.6 per cent of the total prisoner population.
  • Nationally, corrective services agencies operated 111 custodial facilities at 30 June 2015. Community corrections is responsible for a range of non-custodial sanctions and also manages prisoners who are released into the community and continue to be subject to corrective services supervision.
  • In some jurisdictions, community corrections responsibility includes managing offenders on supervised bail orders. Nationally, an average of 57 429 offenders per day were serving community corrections orders in 2014-15 — an increase of 2.0 per cent from 2013-14. Males comprised 81.6 per cent of the daily number of offenders serving community corrections orders and 18.4 per cent were females. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders comprised 20.0 per cent of the total offender population.
  • Nationally in 2014-15, net operating expenditure on corrective services including depreciation was $3.7 billion.

Corrective services contribute to the whole-of-government priority, in all jurisdictions, to create safer communities through the administration of correctional sentences and orders. In summary, the objectives of corrective services are to:

  • provide a safe, secure and humane custodial environment
  • provide an effective community corrections environment
  • provide program interventions to reduce the risk of re-offending.

The performance indicator framework provides information on equity, efficiency and effectiveness, and distinguishes the outputs and outcomes of corrective services. The performance indicator framework shows which data are complete and comparable in the 2016 Report.

Indicator Framework

An overview of the Corrective services performance indicator results are presented. Information to assist the interpretation of these data can be found in the indicator interpretation boxes in the Corrective services chapter and attachment tables.

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Effectiveness indicators

Assaults in custody

Number of victims of violent physical attacks reported over the year, per 100 prisoners, 2014-15 - prisoner on prisoner (rate)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable over time but not directly comparable across jurisdictions. Data are complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Serious assault 0.56 1.69 1.80 0.59 1.40 2.14 3.21 0.13 1.11
Assault 15.07 12.24 5.00 5.42 5.86 8.55 12.56 3.06 9.64
Source: Attachment table 8A.14

Number of victims of violent physical attacks reported over the year, per 100 prisoners, 2014-15 - prisoner on officer (rate)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable over time but not directly comparable across jurisdictions. Data are complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Serious assault 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.05
Assault 0.51 1.56 0.25 1.98 0.79 1.71 0.88 0.89
Source: Attachment table 8A.14.

Apparent unnatural deaths

Rate of prisoner deaths from apparent unnatural causes (deaths per 100 prisoners), by Indigenous status, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander 0.09 0.05 0.17 0.04
Non-Indigenous 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.15 0.51 0.05
Source: Attachment table 8A.15

Number of prisoner deaths from apparent unnatural causes, by Indigenous status, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander 2 1 1 4
Non-Indigenous 2 3 1 2 3 2 13
Source: Attachment tables 8A.26, 8A.34, 8A,40, 8A.46, 8A.52, 8A.58, 8A.64, 8A.72

Time out of cells

Average number of hours per day that prisoners are not confined to their cells or units, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8), except for NT where data were based on a single point in time.
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Open 10.3 14.6 15.8 15.8 15.5 16.8 11.5 24.0 13.5
Secure 6.7 10.7 9.0 11.7 8.5 8.8 8.8 7.9 9.1
Total 8.0 11.3 9.6 12.4 9.2 9.0 8.9 16.6 10.1
Source: Attachment table 8A.18

Employment

Number of prisoners employed as a percentage of those eligible to work, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8).
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
% 76.1 89.3 66.0 73.7 68.3 57.8 65.4 74.7 74.8
Source: Attachment table 8A.20

Community work

Ratio of number of hours directed to work and hours actually worked, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable (subject to caveats) but not complete (chapter 8). Data are not available for NSW or Tasmania.
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Ratio na 3.5 2.1 1.9 3.5 na 1.8 1.8 na
Source: Attachment table 8A.20

Education and training

Percentage of eligible prisoners participating in education and training courses, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
% 31.7 35.7 28.0 24.0 53.1 16.9 76.3 14.1 31.6
Source: Attachment table 8A.21

Efficiency indicators

Cost per prisoner/offender

Average net daily cost of providing corrective services per prisoner and per offender (excluding capital costs), 2014-15 ($)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Prisoner 180.9 297.3 177.9 282.9 207.4 363.3 296.0 211.5 224.2
Offender 23.8 25.7 14.0 46.9 17.8 13.4 31.8 43.5 22.6
Source: Attachment table 8A.7

Offender-to-staff ratio

Daily average number of offenders per full-time community corrections staff member employed, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Operational staff 20.8 16.3 35.1 12.6 23.6 29.6 16.1 11.7 21.2
Other staff 86.2 78.5 74.8 38.1 66.9 152.5 56.1 43.8 72.2
All staff 16.7 13.5 23.9 9.5 17.5 24.8 12.5 9.2 16.4
Source: Attachment table 8A.22

Prison utilisation

Annual daily average prisoner population as a percentage of the number of single occupancy cells and designated beds in shared occupancy cells, 2014-15 (%)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable (subject to caveats) but not complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Open 106.2 na 77.5 84.5 na 100.0 73.1 93.0 97.2
Secure 115.5 na 106.8 105.1 na 77.9 130.0 120.8 109.3
Total 112.0 na 103.5 100.7 na 78.4 126.8 107.2 106.1
Source: Attachment table 8A.23

Outcome indicators

Escapes

Rate of escapes by prisoners (number per 100 prisoners) from secure custody and open custody, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Open 0.13 0.49 0.82 0.52 1.07 1.33 0.43
Secure 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.01
Source: Attachment table 8A.17

Number of escapes by prisoners from secure custody and open custody, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Open 5 5 5 5 3 9 32
Secure 1 1 3
Source: Attachment tables 8A.26, 8A.34, 8A.40, 8A.46, 8A.52, 8A.58, 8A.64 and 8A.72

Completion of community orders

Percentage of orders completed during the year that were not breached for failure to meet the order requirements or because further offences were committed, 2014-15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete (chapter 8)
  NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
% 75.8 66.5 75.6 61.2 67.5 87.6 79.9 69.0 72.9
Source: Attachment tables 8A.19

Legend

a Caveats for these data are available in Chapter 8 and Attachment 8A. Refer to the indicator interpretation boxes in chapter 8 for information to assist with interpreting data presented in this table.

b These data are derived from detailed data in Chapter 8 and Attachment 8A.

na Not available.

.. Not applicable.

- Nil or rounded to zero.

Source: Chapter 8 and Attachment 8A

Performance indicator data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this chapter are available in the attachment tables listed below. Contextual data and further supporting information can be found in the chapter.

Indigenous corrective services data
Table number Table title
Table 8A.15 Deaths from apparent unnatural causes, by Indigenous status, 2014-15 (per 100 prisoners/detainees)
Table 8A.26 NSW Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.34 Victoria Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.40 Queensland Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.52 SA Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.58 Tasmania Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.64 ACT Effectiveness, prisons
Table 8A.72 NT Effectiveness, prisons