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Report on Government Services 2017

Volume B, Chapter 4

School education

This chapter focuses on performance information for government-funded school education in Australia.

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  • Key Facts
  • Indicator Framework
  • Indicator Results
  • Indigenous Data

Nationally in 2015:

  • there were 3.7 million full‑time school students, which represents 15.7 per cent of the Australian population, who were enrolled across 9404 schools
  • the majority of students (65.1 per cent of full‑time equivalent students) were enrolled in a government school. The majority of schools were government owned and managed
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students accounted for 6.9 per cent of students at government schools and 2.4 per cent of students in non-government schools.

Recurrent expenditure by Australian, State and Territory governments on school education in 2014‑15 was $53.0 billion, of which $40.3 billion was spent on government schools.

Improving educational outcomes for all young Australians is central to the nation’s social and economic prosperity and will position young people to live fulfilling, productive and responsible lives. The goals for school education are that: 1) Australian schooling promotes equity and excellence; and 2) all young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens.

Australia’s governments aim to have a school education system:

  • that benefits all young Australians, providing them with essential literacy and numeracy skills, a solid foundation in knowledge and understanding linked with complex skills that underpin problem solving, critical thinking and creativity, so they can reach their full potential
  • where Australian students excel by international standards
  • that reduces the educational disadvantage of children
  • that enables young people to make a successful transition from school to work and/or further study.

For these goals to be achieved, the school education system aims to provide all young Australians with access to high-quality schooling that:

  • engages all students and promotes student participation, attendance and successful transitions through schooling
  • has a focus on quality teaching and world-class curriculum and assessment.

Governments aim for school education services to meet these objectives in an equitable and efficient manner.

The performance indicator framework provides information on equity, efficiency and effectiveness, and distinguishes the outputs and outcomes of school education. The performance indicator framework shows which data are complete and comparable in the 2017 Report.

Indicator framework

An overview of the School education performance indicator results are presented. Information to assist the interpretation of these data can be found in the indicator interpretation boxes in the School education chapter and attachment tables.

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Equity — Access indicators

Attendance by target group

Years 7–10 attendance rate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, government schools, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable, but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 80.7 83.8 81.5 67.3 76.9 81.6 79.9 61.7 77.7
Source: Attachment table 4A.35

Years 7–10 attendance level, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, government schools, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are comparable, subject to caveats, but are not complete
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% na 49.4 45.8 26.7 36.4 49.5 38.0 19.6 38.5
Source: Attachment table 4A.40

Effectiveness — Access indicators

Attendance and participation

Years 7–10 attendance rate, all students, government schools, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable, but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 90.0 91.6 89.7 87.8 89.4 87.6 89.1 76.3 89.8
Source: Attachment table 4A.35

Years 7–10 attendance level, all students, government schools, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable, subject to caveats, but are not complete
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% na 73.5 66.9 63.7 67.2 63.7 65.0 41.4 68.1
Source: Attachment table 4A.40

Participation rate, 15–19 year olds, all schools, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 56.6 61.8 50.9 52.1 63.1 62.1 70.8 45.6 57.6
Source: Attachment table 4A.30

Proportion of the population aged 15–19 years who successfully completed at least one Unit of Competency as part of a VET qualification at AQF Certificate II or above, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 25.3 38.0 35.1 41.6 26.2 21.8 29.9 16.8 32.3
Source: Attachment table 4A.32

Effectiveness — Appropriateness indicators

Retention

Apparent retention rate, year 7/8‑10, full time secondary students, government schools, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 103.6 107.9 103.5 101.3 105.3 101.4 108.6 83.1 104.2
Source: Attachment table 4A.45

Apparent retention rate, year 10‑12, full time secondary students, government schools, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 72.6 81.2 82.1 79.0 91.1 73.8 111.3 62.5 79.2
Source: Attachment table 4A.45

Efficiency  — Inputs per output unit indicators

Recurrent expenditure per student

Government expenditure per FTE student, government schools, 2014‑15 – Includes user cost of capital

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ 16 956 14 612 16 198 19 745 16 616 17 188 20 532 24 394 16 670
Source: Attachment table 4A.13

Government expenditure per FTE student, non‑government schools, 2014‑15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ 9 790 9 251 10 223 10 555 9 377 10 555 8 623 17 373 9 843
Source: Attachment table 4A.14

Government recurrent expenditure on staff per FTE student in government schools, 2014‑15

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ 10 799 9 220 10 549 11 819 11 343 11 550 12 753 13 921 10 607
Source: Attachment table 4A.13.

Outcome indicators

Student outcomes (national testing)

NAPLAN Participation — Participation rate in NAPLAN reading assessment, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
All students — Year 3 97.0 94.6 93.2 95.3 93.3 94.5 93.1 89.8 95.0
All students — Year 9 93.5 90.6 87.2 93.7 89.5 90.5 90.9 80.6 91.2
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 3 94.8 87.8 87.7 84.2 84.7 93.0 84.5 80.4 88.9
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 9 80.8 73.5 75.2 68.2 70.6 82.9 78.4 62.5 74.9
Source: Attachment table 4A.47

NAPLAN Reading — proportion of students achieving at or above national minimum standard, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
All students — Year 3 95.8 ± 0.3 95.8 ± 0.4 95.4 ± 0.4 93.8 ± 0.6 93.4 ± 0.8 94.0 ± 1.0 96.3 ± 0.9 73.8 ± 5.7 95.1 ± 0.2
All students — Year 9 93.1 ± 0.5 93.4 ± 0.7 92.4 ± 0.8 94.0 ± 0.9 91.9 ± 1.5 92.7 ± 1.6 95.2 ± 1.8 68.3 ± 9.5 92.8 ± 0.3
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 3 87.6 ± 1.2 87.3 ± 2.4 85.2 ± 1.9 71.3 ± 3.1 74.7 ± 4.5 91.1 ± 2.9 84.2 ± 10.5 42.2 ± 6.7 80.6 ± 1.3
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 9 80.2 ± 1.6 81.6 ± 3.3 75.9 ± 3.0 69.4 ± 3.8 74.4 ± 4.2 86.4 ± 4.5 81.4 ± 8.4 34.2 ± 8.1 73.6 ± 1.7
Source: Attachment table 4A.48

NAPLAN Numeracy — proportion of students achieving at or above national minimum standard, 2016

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
All students — Year 3 95.9 ± 0.3 95.9 ± 0.4 96.0 ± 0.4 95.0 ± 0.5 94.2 ± 0.7 95.8 ± 0.9 96.9 ± 0.8 77.9 ± 5.4 95.5 ± 0.2
All students — Year 9 95.4 ± 0.4 95.4 ± 0.6 95.3 ± 0.6 95.9 ± 0.7 94.4 ± 1.4 95.7 ± 1.1 96.4 ± 1.6 75.2 ± 8.4 95.2 ± 0.3
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 3 88.4 ± 1.2 87.7 ± 2.4 85.7 ± 2.0 76.2 ± 2.9 78.0 ± 4.1 94.0 ± 2.3 87.6 ± 6.8 50.0 ± 7.2 82.6 ± 1.2
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 9 84.4 ± 1.7 84.6 ± 3.0 83.4 ± 2.7 77.6 ± 3.4 80.1 ± 4.2 91.1 ± 3.5 84.3 ± 9.5 46.1 ± 8.3 79.7 ± 1.6
Source: Attachment table 4A.74

Attainment

Year 12 certificate attainment rate, all students, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 72 82 71 74 86 51 87 43 75
Source: Attachment table 4A.108

Student outcomes (international testing)

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) — proportion of Australian 15 year old students who achieved at or above the national proficient standard, 2015 (%)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Reading literacy 59.5 ± 2.5 63.0 ± 3.3 59.7 ± 3.1 62.8 ± 3.3 60.5 ± 3.7 48.5 ± 4.1 65.1 ± 4.5 48.2 ± 7.3 60.6 ± 1.4
Mathematical
literacy
54.8 ± 2.8 57.7 ± 3.4 52.8 ± 3.5 60.0 ± 4.1 53.5 ± 4.3 44.4 ± 4.3 61.3 ± 4.2 47.4 ± 6.8 55.4 ± 1.6
Scientific literacy 59.2 ± 2.3 62.8 ± 2.8 59.6 ± 2.9 65.5 ± 3.0 60.4 ± 3.9 48.3 ± 3.5 67.9 ± 3.6 50.8 ± 5.4 60.8 ± 1.2

Source: Attachment tables 4A.97, 4A.99 and 4A.101

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) — proportion of students who achieved at or above the intermediate standard, 2015 (%)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Mathematical achievement — Year 4 69.9 ± 5.9 74.1 ± 4.3 68.8 ± 5.6 66.8 ± 7.0 69.5 ± 8.0 68.0 ±10.2 82.3 ± 6.8 48.7 ±13.8 70.2 ± 2.6
Mathematical achievement — Year 8 62.7 ± 6.8 69.8 ± 4.1 62.3 ± 6.1 64.6 ± 5.3 61.9 ± 6.9 60.6 ± 7.3 69.9 ± 4.2 39.7 ± 10.2 64.4 ± 3.1
Scientific achievement — Year 4 75.1 ± 5.5 77.7 ± 4.6 75.6 ± 4.9 70.0 ± 7.2 76.8 ± 7.2 75.7 ± 9.5 84.7 ± 5.6 57.8 ± 14.4 75.4 ± 2.7
Scientific achievement — Year 8 68.4 ± 6.1 71.2 ± 3.2 67.3 ± 5.6 70.3 ± 4.9 66.9 ± 6.5 65.6 ± 7.9 75.8 ± 4.5 46.7 ± 12.4 68.8 ± 2.6
Source: Attachment tables 4A.103 and 4A.105

Destination

Proportion of 15–24 year old school leavers who left school at any time fully participating in education and/or training, or employment, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 72.7 ± 2.3 74.5 ± 3.0 69.4 ± 3.6 76.4 ± 3.8 69.7 ± 5.5 60.9 ± 9.3 76.2 ± 6.3 72.2 ± 8.5 72.7 ± 1.3
Source: Attachment table 4A.111

Notes

AQF = Australian Qualifications Framework. FTE = Full time equivalent. NAPLAN = National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy.

These data and caveats for these data are available in chapter 4 and attachment 4A.

Some percentages reported in these tables include 95 per cent confidence intervals (for example, 80 per cent ± 2.7 per cent).

na Not available.

Performance indicator data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this chapter are available in the attachment tables listed below. Contextual data and further supporting information can be found in the chapter.

Indigenous school education data
Table number Table title
 Participation and attendance
Table 4A.33 Student attendance rates, by year level and Indigenous status, 2016 (per cent)
Table 4A.34 Student attendance rates, by year level and Indigenous status, 2015 (per cent)
Table 4A.35 Student attendance rates, government schools, by Indigenous status and remoteness (per cent)
Table 4A.36 Student attendance rates, non-government schools, by Indigenous status and remoteness (per cent)
Table 4A.37 Student attendance rates, all schools, by Indigenous status and remoteness (per cent)
Table 4A.38 Student attendance level, by school level and Indigenous status and remoteness, 2016 (per cent)
Table 4A.39 Student attendance level, by school level and Indigenous status and remoteness, 2015 (per cent)
Table 4A.40 Student attendance level, government schools, by Indigenous status and remoteness (per cent)
Table 4A.41 Student attendance level, non-government schools, by Indigenous status and remoteness (per cent)
 Retention
Table 4A.42 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students from year 7/8, 2015 (per cent)
Table 4A.44 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, all schools (per cent)
Table 4A.45 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, government schools (per cent)
Table 4A.46 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, non‑–‑government schools (per cent)
 NAPLAN participation
Table 4A.47 Participation rate in NAPLAN assessment, by Indigenous status, 2016 (per cent)
 NAPLAN reading
Table 4A.48 NAPLAN reading: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (per cent)
Table 4A.49 NAPLAN reading: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (score points)
Table 4A.52 NAPLAN reading, NSW: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.53 NAPLAN reading, Victoria: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.54 NAPLAN reading, Queensland: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.55 NAPLAN reading, WA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.56 NAPLAN reading, SA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.57 NAPLAN reading, Tasmania: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.58 NAPLAN reading, ACT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.59 NAPLAN reading, NT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.60 NAPLAN reading, Australia: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
 NAPLAN Writing
Table 4A.61 NAPLAN writing: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (per cent)
Table 4A.62 NAPLAN writing: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (score points)
Table 4A.65 NAPLAN writing, NSW: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.66 NAPLAN writing, Victoria: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.67 NAPLAN writing, Queensland: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.68 NAPLAN writing, WA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.69 NAPLAN writing, SA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.70 NAPLAN writing, Tasmania: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.71 NAPLAN writing, ACT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.72 NAPLAN writing, NT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.73 NAPLAN writing, Australia: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2011, 2015 and 2016
 NAPLAN Numeracy
Table 4A.74 NAPLAN numeracy: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (per cent)
Table 4A.75 NAPLAN numeracy: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation, 2016 (score points)
Table 4A.78 NAPLAN numeracy, NSW: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.79 NAPLAN numeracy, Victoria: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.80 NAPLAN numeracy, Queensland: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.81 NAPLAN numeracy, WA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.82 NAPLAN numeracy, SA: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.83 NAPLAN numeracy, Tasmania: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.84 NAPLAN numeracy, ACT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.85 NAPLAN numeracy, NT: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
Table 4A.86 NAPLAN numeracy, Australia: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard and Mean scale scores, 2008, 2015 and 2016
 NAP Science
Table 4A.89 National Assessment Program, proportion of Year 6 students at or above proficient standard in science achievement performance, by equity group, Australia
 NAP Civics
Table 4A.92 National Assessment Program, proportion of Year 6 students at or above proficient standard in civics and citizenship achievement performance, by equity group, Australia
 NAP ICT
Table 4A.95 National Assessment Program, information and communication technologies: proportion of students attaining the proficient standard, by equity group, Australia