Skip to Content
 Close search

The Education and Labour Market Outcomes (ELMO) model

ELMO model

The Education and Labour Market Outcomes (ELMO) model was developed to estimate the benefits and costs of education policies that are primarily targeted at young adults. It is essentially a bottom-up, partial equilibrium model of the education market.

Professor Paul Miller refereed an earlier version of the ELMO model and noted:

It gives the reader an excellent understanding of the education market, of the linkages between the education sector and the labour market, and of the linkages across the various levels of education. The simulations undertaken come across as sensible, and as generating results that should provide a solid platform for policy evaluation.

The version of the ELMO model that is available on this webpage is a generalised version of the model that was used for the research report on the Impacts and Benefits of COAG Reforms: Business Regulation and VET. For this reason, this version of the model will not exactly reproduce the model results presented in Appendix D of the research report. A version of the ELMO model which does reproduce these results exactly is available upon request.

The 'Education and Labour Market Outcomes model: Documentation and user guide' technical note provides documentation and a user guide for the ELMO model.

Productivity Commission conditions for using the computer files

  • The Commission will not provide users of these programs with any support.
  • The Commission accepts no liability for any errors in the programs.
  • Users of the programs, including users that derive new variations of the model, should acknowledge the Productivity Commission. The appropriate citation is:
    • Productivity Commission 2012, Impacts of COAG Reforms: Business Regulation and VET, Volume 3 - VET, Canberra.

In downloading these programs, you are accepting these conditions.

System requirements

Users of these programs require licensed software to be able to run and solve the models, including:

  • Microsoft Excel
  • GAMS software and a mixed integer programming solver licensed under GAMS, such as GUROBI (available at

Download the model files

Download the user documentation