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Report on Government Services 2019

Part B, Chapter 4

School education

This chapter focuses on performance information for government-funded school education in Australia.

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  • Key Facts
  • Indicator Framework
  • Indicator Results
  • Indigenous Data

Nationally in 2017:

  • there were 3.8 million full time equivalent students enrolled in school
  • the majority of students (65.5 per cent of full time equivalent students) were enrolled in a government school. The majority of schools were government owned and managed.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students accounted for 7.2 per cent of full time students at government schools and 2.6 per cent of full time students in non-government schools.

Recurrent expenditure by Australian, State and Territory governments on school education in 2016‑17 was $57.8 billion, of which $43.7 billion was spent on government schools.

Australian schooling aims for all young Australians to become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens positioning them to live fulfilling, productive and responsible lives. It aims for students to excel by international standards, while reducing educational disadvantage.

To meet this vision, the school education system aims to:

  • engage all students and promote student participation
  • deliver high quality teaching with a world-class curriculum.

Governments aim for school education services to meet these objectives in an equitable and efficient manner.

The performance indicator framework provides information on equity, efficiency and effectiveness, and distinguishes the outputs and outcomes of school education. The performance indicator framework shows which data are complete and comparable in the 2019 Report.

Indicator framework

An overview of the School education performance indicator results are presented. Information to assist the interpretation of these data can be found in the indicator interpretation boxes in the School education chapter and attachment tables.

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Equity — Access indicators

Attendance by target group

Years 7–10 attendance rate, all schools — comparison of the attendance rate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students with the attendance rate of non–Indigenous students, 2018 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students 79.6 82.6 80.8 68.6 76.8 83.0 78.8 57.7 77.1
Non-Indigenous students 91.0 92.0 90.7 91.3 91.0 89.2 90.1 89.4 91.2
Source: Attachment table 4A.20

Effectiveness — Access indicators

Attendance

Years 7–10 attendance rate, all students, 2018 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Government schools 88.7 90.9 88.7 87.7 89.1 87.0 87.9 73.8 88.9
Non–government schools 92.4 93.2 92.1 93.0 92.5 91.5 92.0 81.2 92.5
All schools 90.3 91.8 89.9 89.8 90.4 88.7 89.8 76.4 90.4
Source: Attachment tables 4A.18—20

Effectiveness — Appropriateness indicators

Student engagement

Sense of Belonging index, all students, 2015

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Index -0.11 ± 0.04 -0.06 ± 0.06 -0.17 ± 0.04 -0.17 ± 0.04 -0.17 ± 0.06 -0.14 ± 0.08 -0.21 ± 0.08 -0.24 ± 0.10 -0.12 ± 0.02
Source: Attachment table 4A.25

Retention

Apparent retention rate, year 10–12, the number of full time school students in year 10 that continue to year 12, 2017 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Government schools 73.0 80.4 82.9 81.7 91.2 74.1 107.8 73.6 79.8
Non–government schools 84.1 91.9 95.8 84.9 92.4 66.4 74.7 63.9 88.5
All schools 77.5 85.3 87.8 83.1 91.7 71.5 92.1 70.2 83.3
Source: Attachment tables 4A.28–30

Efficiency  — Inputs per output unit indicators

Recurrent expenditure per student

Government expenditure per FTE student, government schools, 2016-17 — includes user cost of capital

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ 17 585 16 135 17 414 19 346 17 429 17 653 20 750 25 433 17 531
Source: Attachment table 4A.14

Government expenditure per FTE student, non‑government schools, 2016-17

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ 10 363 10 384 10 977 11 117 10 302 11 888 9 193 18 986 10 644
Source: Attachment table 4A.14

Outcome indicators

Student outcomes (national testing)

NAPLAN Reading — proportion of students achieving at or above national minimum standard, 2018 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are incomplete for the current reporting period. Data for 2018 are not available.
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
All students — Year 3 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
All students — Year 9 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 3 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 9 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Source: Attachment table 4A.31

NAPLAN Numeracy — proportion of students achieving at or above national minimum standard, 2018 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are incomplete for the current reporting period. Data for 2018 are not available.
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
All students — Year 3 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
All students — Year 9 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 3 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students — Year 9 na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na na ± na
Source: Attachment table 4A.39

NAP Information and communication technologies literacy — proportion of all students achieving at or above the proficient standard, 2017 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Year 6 51 ± 4.2 62 ± 4.5 47 ± 5.8 54 ± 4.5 53 ± 6.5 49 ± 5.9 65 ± 8.4 35 ± 11.5 53 ± 2.4
Year 10 57 ± 6.8 55 ± 5.0 47 ± 6.6 62 ± 4.0 56 ± 4.6 39 ± 5.6 54 ± 8.4 27 ± 8.4 54 ± 3.0
Source: Attachment table 4A.49

Attainment

Year 12 certificate attainment rate, all students, 2017

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 74 81 85 79 88 61 81 51 79
Source: Attachment table 4A.58

Student outcomes (international testing)

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) — proportion of Australian 15 year old students who achieved at or above the national proficient standard, 2015 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Reading literacy 59.5 ± 2.5 63.0 ± 3.3 59.7 ± 3.1 62.8 ± 3.3 60.5 ± 3.7 48.5 ± 4.1 65.1 ± 4.5 48.2 ± 7.3 60.6 ± 1.4
Mathematical
literacy
54.8 ± 2.8 57.7 ± 3.4 52.8 ± 3.5 60.0 ± 4.1 53.5 ± 4.3 44.4 ± 4.3 61.3 ± 4.2 47.4 ± 6.8 55.4 ± 1.6
Scientific literacy 59.2 ± 2.3 62.8 ± 2.8 59.6 ± 2.9 65.5 ± 3.0 60.4 ± 3.9 48.3 ± 3.5 67.9 ± 3.6 50.8 ± 5.4 60.8 ± 1.2
Source: Attachment tables 4A.52–54

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) — proportion of students who achieved at or above the intermediate international benchmark, 2015 (per cent)

Most recent data for these measures are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Mathematical achievement — Year 4 69.9 ± 5.9 74.1 ± 4.3 68.8 ± 5.6 66.8 ± 7.0 69.5 ± 8.0 68.0 ± 10.2 82.3 ± 6.8 48.7 ± 13.8 70.2 ± 2.6
Mathematical achievement — Year 8 62.7 ± 6.8 69.8 ± 4.1 62.3 ± 6.1 64.6 ± 5.3 61.9 ± 6.9 60.6 ± 7.3 69.9 ± 4.2 39.7 ± 10.2 64.4 ± 3.1
Scientific achievement — Year 4 75.1 ± 5.5 77.7 ± 4.6 75.6 ± 4.9 70.0 ± 7.2 76.8 ± 7.2 75.7 ± 9.5 84.7 ± 5.6 57.8 ± 14.4 75.4 ± 2.7
Scientific achievement — Year 8 68.4 ± 6.1 71.2 ± 3.2 67.3 ± 5.6 70.3 ± 4.9 66.9 ± 6.5 65.6 ± 7.9 75.8 ± 4.5 46.7 ± 12.4 68.8 ± 2.6
Source: Attachment tables 4A.55–56

Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) — proportion of students who achieved at or above the intermediate international benchmark, 2016 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Year 4 80.4 ± 4.4 86.0 ± 3.1 78.3 ± 4.4 81.0 ± 4.3 74.5 ± 5.0 77.7 ± 6.2 82.0 ± 3.7 74.7 ± 11.1 80.9 ± 2.0
Source: Attachment table 4A.57

Destination

Proportion of school leavers aged 15–24 years who left school in 2017 and who in 2018 were fully engaged in further education, training and/or employment

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 76.8 ± 5.1 76.1 ± 7.2 59.0 ± 8.3 67.1 ± 11.9 77.7 ± 10.5 73.6 ± 16.9 73.0 ± 16.9 47.8 ± 27.8* 70.9 ± 3.4
Source: Attachment table 4A.60

Notes

FTE = Full time equivalent. NAPLAN = National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy.

These data and caveats for these data are available in chapter 4 and attachment 4A.

Some percentages reported in these tables include 95 per cent confidence intervals (for example, 80 per cent ± 2.7 per cent). Confidence intervals for the Student outcomes (national testing) indicator are calculated by ACARA and take into account sampling and measurement error. See definitions of key terms (section 4.4) for more information.

* Indicates the estimate or proportion has a relative standard error between 25 per cent and 50 per cent and should therefore be used with caution.

Performance indicator data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this chapter are available in the attachment tables listed below. Contextual data and further supporting information can be found in the chapter.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander school education data
Table number Table title
 Attendance 
Table 4A.18 Student attendance rates, government schools, by Indigenous status (per cent)
Table 4A.19 Student attendance rates, non-government schools, by Indigenous status (per cent)
Table 4A.20 Student attendance rates, all schools, by Indigenous status (per cent)
Table 4A.21 Student attendance rates, by Indigenous status and remoteness, 2017 (per cent)
Table 4A.22 Student attendance level, government schools, by Indigenous status (per cent)
Table 4A.23 Student attendance level, non-government schools, by Indigenous status (per cent)
Table 4A.24 Student attendance level, by Indigenous status and remoteness, 2017 (per cent)
 Student Engagement
Table 4A.26 PISA Sense of Belong at School Index, by special needs group, 2015
 Retention
Table 4A.28 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, all schools (per cent)
Table 4A.29 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, government schools (per cent)
Table 4A.30 Apparent retention rates of full time secondary students, non-government schools (per cent)
 Student outcomes (national testing)
Table 4A.31 NAPLAN reading: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation (per cent)
Table 4A.32 NAPLAN reading: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation (score points)
Table 4A.35 NAPLAN writing: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation (per cent)
Table 4A.36 NAPLAN writing: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation (score points)
Table 4A.39 NAPLAN numeracy: Proportion of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard, by Indigenous status and geolocation (per cent)
Table 4A.40 NAPLAN numeracy: Mean scores, by Indigenous status and geolocation (score points)
Table 4A.45 National Assessment Program, proportion of Year 6 students at or above proficient standard in science achievement performance, by equity group, Australia
Table 4A.48 National Assessment Program, proportion of students at or above proficient standard in civics and citizenship achievement performance, by equity group, Australia
Table 4A.51 National Assessment Program, information and communication technologies: proportion of students attaining the proficient standard, by equity group, Australia