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Report on Government Services 2020

PART E, SECTION 13: RELEASED ON 31 JANUARY 2020

13 Mental health management

This section reports on the performance of governments managing of mental health and mental illnesses.

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  • Key Facts
  • Indicator Framework
  • Indicator Results
  • Indigenous Data

Government recurrent expenditure on mental health services was around $9.4 billion in 2017‑18, equivalent to $377.79 per person in the population. State and Territory governments made the largest contribution ($6.0 billion or 64.1 per cent, which includes Australian Government funding under the NHRA), with Australian Government expenditure of $3.4 billion.

In 2017-18, 1.9 per cent of the total population received State and Territory governments’ specialised mental health services (including inpatient/admitted care in hospitals, community based ambulatory care and community based residential care) and 10.6 per cent of the total population received MBS/DVA subsidised mental health services.

Mental health services aim to:

  • promote mental health and wellbeing, and where possible prevent the development of mental health problems, mental illness and suicide, and
  • when mental health problems and illness do occur, reduce the impact (including the effects of stigma and discrimination), promote recovery and physical health and encourage meaningful participation in society, by providing services that:
    • are high quality, safe and responsive to consumer and carer goals
    • facilitate early detection of mental health issues and mental illness, followed by appropriate intervention
    • are coordinated and provide continuity of care
    • are timely, affordable and readily available to those who need them
    • are sustainable.

Governments aim for mental health services to meet these objectives in an equitable and efficient manner.

The performance indicator framework provides information on equity, efficiency and effectiveness, and distinguishes the outputs and outcomes of mental health management. The performance indicator framework shows which data are complete and comparable in the 2020 Report.

Indicator framework

An overview of the Mental health management performance indicator results are presented. Information to assist the interpretation of these data can be found in the indicator interpretation boxes in the Mental health management section and data tables.

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Equity — Access indicators

Mental health service use by selected community groups

Proportion of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population using State and Territory specialised public mental health services, compared with the proportion for non‑Indigenous population, 2017‑18 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 5.2 3.6 5.3 6.7 7.1 3.1 9.4 4.4 5.3
Non-Indigenous people 1.6 1.1 2.0 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.4 1.7
Source: Data table 13A.17

Proportion of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population using MBS subsidised mental health services, compared with the proportion for non‑Indigenous population, 2017‑18 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 12.5 16.3 10.8 6.7 11.8 12.0 15.3 2.8 10.6
Non-Indigenous people 10.2 11.2 11.0 9.4 10.1 10.5 8.9 5.8 10.5
Source: Data table 13A.17

Effectiveness — Access

Timely access to mental health care

Proportion of mental health-related emergency department presentations seen within clinically recommended waiting times, 2017‑18 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 76.6 71.0 65.1 56.9 52.1 56.3 43.0 55.7 66.8
Source: Data table 13A.19

Effectiveness — Appropriateness indicators

Primary mental health care for children and young people

Proportion of young people aged under 25 years who had contact with MBS subsidised primary mental health care services, 2018‑19

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 8.5 9.3 9.6 8.0 9.0 9.9 8.3 3.7 8.9
Source: Data table 13A.20

Consumer and carer involvement in decision making

Number of paid FTE consumer and carer staff per 1000 FTE paid direct care staff, 2017‑18 (rate)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Consumer staff 4.0 5.8 12.4 1.2 7.7 0.7 3.6 33.9 6.4
Carer staff 0.3 4.9 4.3 0.2 2.2 0.7 2.4
Source: Data table 13A.23

Effectiveness — Quality — Safety indicators

Services reviewed against the National Standards

Proportion of expenditure on specialised public mental health services that had completed an external review against national standards and were assessed as meeting ‘all Standards’ (level 1), 30 June 2018

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 90.1 66.6 99.8 96.1 99.4 75.8 85.1
Source: Data table 13A.24

Restrictive practices

Number of seclusion events per 1000 bed days in specialised public mental health acute inpatient units, 2018‑19

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Rate 6.0 8.0 7.3 6.8 9.1 8.5 10.9 13.6 7.3
Source: Data table 13A.25

Number of mechanical and physical restraint events per 1000 bed days in State and Territory governments’ specialised mental health acute inpatient units, 2018‑19

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Mechanical restraint rate 0.8 1.3 0.1 0.2 0.5 np 0.6
Physical restraint rate 8.0 24.1 9.0 5.8 1.5 11.4 9.3 12.4 11.3
Source: Data table 13A.27

Effectiveness — Quality — Responsiveness

Consumer and carer experiences of mental health services

Proportion of mental health service consumers reporting positive experiences of mental health services, 2017‑18 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable across jurisdictions and incomplete for the current reporting period
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Admitted Care 68.7 50.4 47.1 na na na na na na
Ambulatory Care 77.9 73.8 79.1 na na na na na na
Residential Care na 77.6 78.9 na na na na na na
Source: Data table 13A.29

Effectiveness — Quality — Continuity indicators

Community follow‑up after psychiatric admission/hospitalisation

Proportion of State and Territory governments’ specialised public admitted patient overnight acute separations from psychiatric units for which a community‑based ambulatory contact was recorded in the seven days following separation, 2017-18

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 75.4 75.8 74.2 78.9 66.6 81.7 78.1 86.6 75.2
Source: Data table 13A.32

Readmissions to hospital within 28 days of discharge

Proportion of State and Territory governments’ admitted patient overnight separations from psychiatric acute inpatient units that were followed by readmission to a psychiatric acute inpatient unit within 28 days of discharge, 2017-18

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 14.9 14.7 14.0 17.8 15.7 15.7 15.8 10.3 15.1

Source: Data table 13A.34

Effectiveness — Sustainability indicators

Workforce sustainability

Proportion of full-time equivalent (FTE) medical practitioners (including psychiatrists), mental health nurses, registered psychologists and other allied mental health practitioners aged less than 35 years, by jurisdiction, 2018 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Medical practitioners (including psychiatrists) 6.7 12.3 8.3 9.7 13.1 3.3 11.9 8.6 9.4
Nurses 25.3 28.1 19.3 22.2 13.1 11.2 30.3 20.0 23.4
Psychologists 21.1 22.7 20.5 18.5 21.5 17.0 23.6 17.1 21.1
Other allied health practitioners 47.5 55.2 47.6 41.5 47.8 17.1 49.8 38.1 48.8
Source: Data table 13A.35

Efficiency indicators

Cost of care

Cost of inpatient care, 2017-18 ($ per bed day)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
General mental health services (acute units) 1 275.06 1 108.78 1 051.35 1 517.54 1 450.65 1 067.97 1 251.52 1 816.39 1 242.99
General hospital with a psychiatric unit or ward (acute units) 1 254.55 1 101.50 1 087.66 1 553.87 1 443.51 1 223.92 1 275.38 1 816.39 1 240.08
Source: Data table 13A.36 and 13A.38

Cost of community-based residential care, general adult units — 24 hour staffed units, 2017-18 (average cost per patient day)

Average cost per patient day

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ per patient day 457.32 558.98 607.78 507.31 560.52 638.42 822.36 727.78 576.89
Source: Data table 13A.40

Cost of ambulatory care, 2017-18 (average cost per treatment day)

Most recent data for this measure are are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
$ per treatment day 267.76 385.46 345.36 451.60 329.57 332.18 243.36 466.98 334.37
Source: Data table 13A.41

Outcome indicators

Prevalence of mental illness

Proportion of people with lifetime mental disorders (with symptoms in the previous 12 months) among adults aged 16–85 years, 2007

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 20.1 ± 2.2 20.7 ± 2.3 19.2 ± 2.6 21.4 ± 4.1 19.1 ± 3.4 14.1 ± 5.4 np np 20.0 ± 1.1
Source: Data table 13A.42

Mortality due to suicide

Suicide rate per 100 000 people, 2014–2018

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
Rate 10.9 10.1 15.3 15.0 13.2 15.4 10.7 20.4 12.4
Source: Data table 13A.52

Physical health outcomes for people with a mental illness

Proportion of people with a mental illness (compared to the proportion for people without a mental illness) who experienced asthma, 2017-18 (per cent)

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
People with mental or behavioural problems 17.6 ± 3.4 18.6 ± 3.0 18.3 ± 3.0 15.2 ± 4.4 23.1 ± 4.3 24.0 ± 4.2 21.8 ± 5.7 15.5 ± 6.1 18.4 ± 1.5
People without mental or behavioural problems 9.1 ± 1.1 10.0 ± 1.4 10.2 ± 1.5 8.9 ± 2.2 8.9 ± 1.7 10.3 ± 2.0 9.3 ± 2.0 6.1 ± 2.0 9.5 ± 0.6
Source: Data table 13A.57

Social and economic inclusion of people with a mental illness

Proportion of people aged 15 years or over with a mental illness who had face-to-face contact with family or friends living outside the household in the last week, compared with the proportion for people without a mental illness, 2014

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
People with mental illness 75.4 ± 7.3 79.0 ± 5.3 72.5 ± 5.2 77.0 ± 6.6 81.7 ± 8.1 78.1 ± 5.2 76.3 ± 5.9 54.8 ± 11.5 76.5 ± 3.1
People without mental illness 75.1 ± 2.8 77.9 ± 3.1 75.6 ± 3.3 77.4 ± 3.1 85.1 ± 2.1 86.5 ± 2.8 75.8 ± 2.6 69.6 ± 4.6 77.1 ± 1.4
Source: Data table 13A.60

Mental health outcomes of consumers of specialised public mental health services

Proportion of people discharged from a State or Territory public hospital psychiatric inpatient unit who had a significant improvement in their clinical mental health outcomes, 2017‑18

Most recent data for this measure are not comparable but are complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
% 68.8 74.4 72.1 72.1 66.1 81.6 41.0 75.8 71.6
Source: Data table 13A.63

Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with mental health problems or mental illness

Proportion of people with a mental health condition who have experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly, 2014

Most recent data for this measure are comparable and complete, subject to caveats
 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust
People with mental illness 29.6 ± 6.5 24.9 ± 6.6 31.7 ± 6.5 36.2 ± 8.3 25.0 ± 5.7 23.7 ± 5.2 29.3 ± 6.8 31.0 ± 9.6 29.1 ± 3.2
Source: Data table 13A.64

Notes

These data and caveats for these data are available in section 13 and data tables 13A.

Some percentages reported in these tables include 95 per cent confidence intervals (for example, 80 per cent ± 2.7 per cent).

na Not available. .. Not applicable. – Nil or rounded to zero. np Not published.

Performance indicator data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this section are available in the data tables listed below. Contextual data and further supporting information can be found in the chapter.

Mental health data disaggregated for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Table number Table title
Table 13A.17 Proportion of people receiving clinical mental health services by service type and Indigenous status
Table 13A.21 Proportion of young people (aged < 25 years) who had contact with MBS subsidised primary mental health care services, by selected characteristics (per cent)
Table 13A.30 Rates of community follow up within first seven days of discharge from a psychiatric admission, by State and Territory, by Indigenous status and remoteness
Table 13A.33 Readmissions to hospital within 28 days of discharge, by selected characteristics
Table 13A.48 Age-standardised rate of adults with high/ very high levels of psychological distress, by State and Territory, by Indigenous status
Table 13A.55 Suicide deaths, by Indigenous status