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Review of overseas export enhancement measures

Industry Commission inquiry report

The Industry Commission Inquiry Report, Review of Overseas Export Enhancement Measures, was signed on 3 April 1992 and released in two volmes. Volume 1 contains the report chapters and appendices, and volume 2 contain studies of individual countries and regions.

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  • Contents

Volume 1

Cover, Copyright, Signing Page, Contents, Abbreviations, Overview, Recommendations, Findings

1 The Inquiry

2 Why Enhance Exports?
2.1 The benefits from trade
2.2 Determinates of export
2.3 Rationals for export enhancement measures
2.4 Concluding comments

3 Subsidies and the GATT
3.1 Subsidies in theory
3.2 GATT provisions
3.3 Concluding comments

4 Export Subsidies
4.1 Use of the subsidies - an overview
4.2 The problem of agricultural assistance
4.3 Research and development assistance
4.4 Infrastrucuture
4.5 The evidence from countervailing actions
4.6 Concluding comments

5 Export Finance Assistance
5.1 Export finance agencies
5.2 Forms of export finance assistance
5.3 International use and cost of export finance
5.4 Why governments underwrite exports
5.5 Effects of export finance assistance
5.6 Effects on the Australian economy of foreign finance assistance
5.7 Concluding comments

6 Tax Incentives
6.1 Tax incentives to encourage exports
6.2 GATT consistency of tax incentives
6.3 Comparing the use of tax regimes to encourage investment
6.4 Economic effects
6.5 Concluding comments

7 Export Processing Zones
7.1 Rationale for establishing EPZs
7.2 Rationale for investing in EPZs
7.3 The performance of EPZs
7.4 Growth triangles
7.5 Science parks
7.6 Concluding comments

8 Export Marketing Assistance
8.1 Rationale for government involvement in the provision of information and risk sharing
8.2 Types of export marketing assistance
8.3 Economic effects
8.4 Developing an export culture
8.5 Concluding comments

9 Trade-related Investment Measures
9.1 Types of export-related investment measures
9.2 Use of export-related investment measures
9.3 Economic effects
9.4 Concluding comments

A Conduct of the inquiry
A.1 Visits
A.2 Participants

B Australia's export enhancement measures
B.1 Export subsidies
B.2 Export marketing
B.3 Export finance assistance
B.4 Trade-related investment measures
B.5 Research and development
B.6 Recent reviews of programs

C GATT provisions
C.1 Selected Articles from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
C.2 Agreement on interpretation and application of Articles VI, XVI and XXIII of The General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (The Tokyo Subsidy Code)
C.3 Letter from Australia to the United States concerning the Subsidies Code

D International agreements on export finance
D.1 The Berne Union
D.2 The OECD Arrangement on guidelines for officially supported export credits
D.3 The GATT Subsidies Code
D.4 Recent agreements


Volume 2

Cover, Copyright, Signing Page, Contents, Abbreviations

I Introduction
I.1 Selecting the economies to examine
I.2 Trade performance of selected economies
I.3 Stage of economic development
I.4 Prevalence of export enhancement measures
References - Introduction

II Hong Kong
II.1 Trade performance
II.2 Trade and industry policy
II.3 Export enhancement measures
II.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
References - Hong Kong

III Indonesia
III.1 Trade performance
III.2 Trade and industry policy
III.3 Export enhancement measures
III.4 Effects of Indonesian export enhancement measures
III.5 Concluding comments
References - Indonesia

IV Japan
IV.1 Trade performance
IV.2 Trade and industry policy
IV.3 Export enhancement measures
IV.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
IV.5 Concluding comments
References - Japan

V Korea, Republic of
V.1 Trade performance
V.2 Trade and industry policy
V.3 Export enhancement measures
V.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
References - Korea

VI Malaysia
I.1 Trade performance
VI.2 Trade and industry policy
VI.3 Export enhancement measures
VI.4 Economic effects of export enhancement measures
VI.5 Concluding comments
References - Malaysia

VII Singapore
VII.1 Trade performance
VII.2 Trade and industry policy
VII.3 Export enhancement measures
VII.4 Effects of Singapore's export enhancement measures
VII.5 Concluding Comments
References - Singapore

VIII Taiwan
VIII.1 Trade performance
VIII.2 Trade and industry policy
VIII.3 Export enhancement measures
VIII.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
VIII.5 Concluding comments
References - Taiwan

IX Thailand
IX.1 Trade performance
IX.2 Trade and industry policy
IX.3 Export enhancement measures
IX.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
IX.5 Concluding comments
References - Thailand
Annex A

X New Zealand
X.1 Trade performance
X.2 Trade and industry policy
X.3 Export enhancement measures
X.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
X.5 Concluding comments
References - New Zealand

XI The United States of America
XI.1 Trade performance
XI.2 Trade and industry policy
XI.3 Export enhancement measures
XI.4 Effects of the United States export enhancement measures
XI.4 Concluding comments
References - United States

XII The European Community
XII.1 Trade performance
XII.2 Trade and industry policy
XII.3 Export enhancement measures
References - EC

XIII France
XIII.1 Trade performance
XIII.2 Trade and industry policy
XIII.3 Export enhancement measures
XIII.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
XIII.5 Concluding comments
References - France

XIV Germany
XIV.1 Trade performance
XIV.2 Trade and industry policy
XIV.3 Export enhancement measures
XIV.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
XIV.5 Concluding Comments
References - Germany

XV The United Kingdom
XV.1 Trade performance
XV.2 Trade and industry policy
XV.3 Export enhancement measures
XV.4 Effects of export enhancement measures
XV.5 Concluding comments
References - UK

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