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Tourism accommodation and training

Industry Commission inquiry report

The Industry Commission inquiry report, Tourism Accommodation and Training, was signed on 3 April 1996 and subsequently released by the Commonwealth Government. The report contains the findings of the Industry Commission public inquiry on tourism accommodation and tourism training arrangements. It focuses on the structure and competitiveness of Australia’s tourist accommodation providers and associated services, including an identification of strengths and weakness, drawing on international comparisons where appropriate.

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    • Contents

    Cover, Copyright, Signing Page, Contents, Abbreviations

    PART A

    Terms of Reference, Overview, Findings and recommendations


    1   The inquiry
    1.1   Introduction
    1.2   Scope of the inquiry
    1.3   Why investigate tourism accommodation and training?
    1.4   Conduct of the inquiry
    1.5   Structure of the report

    2   The tourism industry
    2.1   Measuring tourism as an industry
    2.2   The history of tourism
    2.3   Tourism worldwide
    2.4   Tourism in East Asia-Pacific
    2.5   Tourism in Australia
    2.6   Australian travel overseas
    2.7   Comparisons with overseas destinations
    2.8   What influences tourism in Australia
    2.9   Government involvement in tourism in Australia
    2.10   Conclusions

    3   The economic impact of tourism
    3.1   Introduction
    3.2   Contribution of tourism to national income
    3.3   Expenditure by inbound visitors to Australia
    3.4   Domestic tourism expenditure
    3.5   Inbound and domestic tourism expenditure compared
    3.6   The increasing share of tourism in Australian expenditure
    3.7   Current account implications of tourism
    3.8   Economy-wide impacts of tourism expenditure
    3.9   Conclusion

    4 The stock of tourism accommodation in Australia
    4.1   Introduction
    4.2   Types of tourism accommodation
    4.3   Current accommodation stock
    4.4   Developments in tourism accommodation
    4.5   Conclusions

    5   Tourism accommodation segments
    5.1   Introduction
    5.2   Evolution of tourism accommodation
    5.3   Who uses what type of accommodation
    5.4   Making decisions on accommodation
    5.5   Conclusions

    6   Accommodation provision and the natural environment
    6.1   Introduction
    6.2   The relevance of the natural environment to tourism
    6.3   Benefits and costs associated with accommodation provision
    6.4   Valuation of the natural environment
    6.5   Environmental decision making
    6.6   Conclusions
    Attachment 6.1   Accommodation and development in the North West Cape area of Western Australia

    7   Approvals and standards
    7.1   Introduction
    7.2   Land use and development approvals
    7.3   Operating regulations
    7.4   Industry quality standards
    7.5   Provision for the disabled
    7.6   Conclusions

    8   Tax and tourism accommodation
    8.1   Introduction
    8.2   Tax principles
    8.3   Impact of taxation
    8.4   Indirect taxes
    8.5   Does the accommodation industry face a higher than average indirect tax level?
    8.6   Direct tax
    8.7   Other tax matters

    9   The accommodation market fundamentals
    9.1   Introduction
    9.2   Determinants of demand
    9.3   Short-run considerations
    9.4   Long-run supply and investment
    9.5   Conclusion

    10   Investment during the last decade
    10.1   Introduction
    10.2   The impact of economic conditions
    10.3   The pattern of investment over the last decade
    10.4   Commencements from 1984-85 to 1986-87
    10.5 Commencements from 1987-88 to 1989-90
    10.6   Commencements from 1990-91 to 1994-95
    10.7   Changing ownership
    10.8   Current ownership patterns
    10.9   The overhang of the 1980s
    10.10   Conclusions

    11   Profitability of tourism accommodation
    11.1   Introduction
    11.2   Available data on profitability
    11.3   ABS surveys
    11.4   Room yield
    11.5   Gross operating profit
    11.6   Ownership and management
    11.7   International comparisons
    11.8   Conclusions

    12   Future investment in tourism accommodation
    12.1   Introduction
    12.2   Is Australia competitive for new tourism investment?
    12.3   Forecasts of accommodation demand
    12.4   Adequacy of existing data
    12.5 The potential for increases in room rates
    12.6   The availability of finance
    12.7   Concessional access to land
    12.8   Conclusions

    13   Employment in tourism
    13.1   Introduction
    13.2   The demand for labour
    13.3   The supply of labour
    13.4   Characteristics of tourism jobs
    13.5   Conclusion

    14   The tourism labour market
    14.1   Introduction
    14.2   Overview of tourism labour markets
    14.3   Labour costs
    14.4   Awards in the tourism industry
    14.5   Enterprise bargaining in the tourism industry
    14.6   Conclusion

    15   Institutional arrangements for the delivery of tourism training
    15.1   Introduction
    15.2   Background to National Vocational Education and Training System (NVETS)
    15.3   The VET funding process
    15.4   The Tourism Training Network
    15.5   Government accreditation and industry recognition of training
    15.6   Conclusions

    16   Tourism training
    16.1   Introduction
    16.2   The present skill level of the tourism workforce
    16.3   The delivery of tourism training
    16.4   Demand for tourism training
    16.5   Chefs
    16.6 Emerging issues in tourism training
    16.7   Conclusions
    Attachment 16.1   Tourism courses and enrolments at Australian universities, 1994


    CS1   Substitution among tourism accommodation standards

    CS2   Backpacker accommodation

    CS3   The Sheraton Towers agreement

    CS4   The NSW restaurants award

    PART D   Appendices

    A   Inquiry participants

    B   Economy-wide impacts of increased tourism demand

    C   Costs and benefits of accommodation in the natural environment

    D   Ownership and management

    E   Workplace regulation in the tourism industry

    F   Flexibility in tourism awards

    G   Enterprise bargaining in tourism

    H   Skills development

    I   The national vocational education and training system

    J   Industry training initiatives

    K   Tourism training survey

    L   The return to education in tourism


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