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Urban transport

Industry Commission inquiry report

This report was signed on 15 February 1994, and subsequently released in two volumes by the Commonwealth Government. The report contains the findings of the Industry Commission public inquiry, in response to a request from the Commonwealth Government, to examine the institutional, regulatory and other arrangements affecting transport operations in Australia’s major metropolitan areas and larger cities and towns which lead to inefficient resource use.

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  • Contents

Volume 1

Cover, Copyright, Signing Page, Contents, Abbreviations, Glossary, Terms of Reference, Overview, Main findings and recommendations, The inquiry


A1 The city and transport
A1.1 Introduction
A1.2 Transport and objectives for Australian cities
A1.3 How are cities shaped?
A1.4 Concerns with current urban forms
A1.5 Choices and decisions
A1.6 Concluding remarks

A2 Urban transport and patterns
A2.1 Why do we travel?
A2.2 Where do we travel?
A2.3 How do we travel?
A2.4 Patterns of road use in cities
A2.5 Trends over time in travel
A2.6 Conclusion

A3 Indicators of performance
A3.1 Introduction
A3.2 Participants' views
A3.3 Inadequate data
A3.4 The performance of urban public transport
A3.5 The performance of urban roads
A3.6 Conclusion

A4 The role of government
A4.1 Introduction
A4.2 The current role of government in urban transport
A4.3 The rationale for government involvement
A4.4 Choosing the appropriate role for governments
A4.5 The role of different levels of government

A5 Reforming government transport agencies
A5.1 Introduction
A5.2 Current institutional arrangements
A5.3 The shortcomings of present institutional arrangements
A5.4 Improving the institutional arrangements: corporatisation
A5.5 Conclusion and recommendations

A6 Regulation and competition
A6.1 Introduction
A6.2 The role of regulation
A6.3 The effects of regulation
A6.4 The scope for competition
A6.5 Concerns about competition
A6.6 Competition in Australian public transport
A6.7 Conclusion

A7 Pricing and investment
A7.1 The role of urban transport pricing
A7.2 Urban road pricing
A7.3 Urban public transport pricing
A7.4 The impact of transport price changes
A7.5 Current arrangements for urban transport investment
A7.6 Problems with the current approach to investment
A7.7 Reform of investment processes
A7.8 Alternative arrangements for financing investment

A8 Social issues
A8.1 Introduction
A8.2 Assistance to the transport disadvantaged
A8.3 The effectiveness of subsidies
A8.4 Transport for people with disabilities
A8.5 Longer-term reform
A8.6 Conclusion

A9 The use of roads
A9.1 Introduction
A9.2 Congestion
A9.3 Better use of roads
A9.4 Conclusion

A10 The environment, accidents and roads
A10.1 Introduction
A10.2 The nature of the environmental problem
A10.3 Costs of pollution
A10.4 Developing policy responses to pollution
A10.5 Consideration of policy measures
A10.6 Technological change
A10.7 Road accidents
A10.8 Conclusion

A11 Reform: an integrated approach
A11.1 The Reform Package
A11.2 An Implementation Program
A11.3 Transport and cities: the package applied
A11.4 The impact of the reform package
A11.5 Locking in change


B1 Urban rail
B1.1 The role of urban rail in Australian cities
B1.2 Institutional arrangements
B1.3 Assessment of performance
B1.4 Options for improving performance

B2 Trams and light rail
B2.1 Characteristics of trams and light rail
B2.2 The current role of trams and light rail
B2.3 Assessment of performance of existing systems
B2.4 Options for improving performance
B2.5 Proposals for new light rail lines

B3 Buses
B3.1 The role of buses
B3.2 Regulation and provision of Australian urban buses
B3.3 Performance of public and private bus operators in Australia
B3.4 Issues in reform
B3.5 The Commission's reform options
B3.6 Implementing reform
B3.7 Conclusion

B4 Taxis and hirecars
B4.1 The role of taxis in urban transport
B4.2 Current institutional arrangements
B4.3 Rationale for regulation
B4.4 The effects of taxi regulation
B4.5 The benefits of opening up the taxi industry
B4.6 Issues in reform
B4.7 The Commission's reform proposals
B4.8 Conclusion

B5 Community transport
B5.1 The role of community transport
B5.2 Impediments to community transport
B5.3 Recommendations

B6 Cycling
B6.1 The role of cycling
B6.2 The benefits and costs of cycling
B6.3 Expanding the role of cycling
B6.4 Conclusion


Volume 2

A Inquiry procedures
A.1 Visits
A.2 Initial public hearings participants
A.3 Draft report public hearings participants
A.4 Submissions received

B Determinants of demand for urban travel
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Modelling approaches
B.3 Findings

C Modelling the effects of urban transport reforms
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Models of urban land use
C.3 The MULTI model of Melbourne
C.4 Illustrative simulations with MULTI

D A comparison of the productivity of urban passenger transport systems
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Organisational total factor productivity
D.3 An analysis of modes by organisation
D.4 An analysis of productivity by mode and organisation over time
D.5 Conclusion
Attachment to Appendix D

E Performance measurement in the urban bus sector
E.1 The main findings

F Urban bus operations: productive efficiency and regulatory reform - international experience
F.1 Introduction
F.2 The pre-reform situation
F.3 The regulatory reforms
F.4 Impacts on technical efficiency
F.5 Some comparisons and implications for the Australian situation

G Urban transport systems in other countries
G.1 Leeds
G.2 Munich
G.3 Newcastle upon Tyne
G.4 Singapore
G.5 Toronto
G.6 Vancouver
G.7 Washington, DC
G.8 Zurich
G.9 Implications for Australia

H Developments in road pricing
H.1 Introduction
H.2 Road pricing in other countries
H.3 Conclusion

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