Skip to Content
 Close search

Report on Government Services 2023


2 Statistical context

The Statistical context contains information to assist interpretation of the performance information in this Report. It includes information and data on population, families and households, and income and employment. Information on some of the statistical concepts that are used in the Report is available in the Statistical concepts note.

Data referenced by a '2A' prefix (for example, table 2A.1) are included in the data tables, which can be downloaded below.


The Australian people are the principal recipients of the government services covered by this Report. The size, trends and characteristics of the population1 can have significant influences on the demand for government services and the cost of service delivery.

Population size and trends

More than three‑quarters of Australia’s 25.7 million people lived in the eastern mainland states as at 30 June 2021. As the majority of Australia’s population lives in the eastern mainland states, data for these jurisdictions generally have a large influence on national averages. Nationally, the average annual growth rate of the population between 2017 and 2021 was approximately 1.1 per cent (table 2A.1).

As in most other developed economies, greater life expectancy and declining fertility have contributed to an ‘ageing’ of Australia’s population. However, the age distribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (figure 2.1b) is markedly different to that of all Australians (figure 2.1a). At 30 June 2021, 11.9 per cent of Australia’s population was aged 70 years or over, compared with just 2.3 per cent of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population as at 30 June 2016 (tables 2A.1 and 2A.4).

The most recent estimate of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population (2016) is used to make comparisons with the most recent estimated Australian population (2021). Annual data are based on the 2016 Census of Population and Housing and are available in tables 2A.1 and 2A.4.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population

There were an estimated 798 365 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (50.1 per cent female, similar to the total population) in Australia at 30 June 2016, accounting for approximately 3.3 per cent of the total Australian population in 2016 (figure 2.2).

Population, by ethnicity and proficiency in English

Some new Australians face specific problems when accessing government services. Language and cultural differences can be formidable barriers for otherwise capable people. Cultural backgrounds can also have a significant influence on the support networks offered by extended families.

People born outside Australia accounted for 27.7 per cent of the population in August 2021 (8.0 per cent from the main English speaking countries and 19.7 per cent from other countries) (table 2A.7). Of those born outside Australia, 89.4 per cent spoke only English, or spoke another language as well as speaking English well or very well (table 2A.6). Approximately 22.3 per cent of Australians spoke a language other than English at home in August 2021 (table 2A.8).

Population, by geographic location

Those living in remote areas can have greater difficulty in accessing government services, often needing to travel long distances, or facing lower service levels than provided in major cities. The Australian population is highly urbanised, with 71.7 per cent of the population located in major cities as at 30 June 2021 (table 2A.3).

Family and household

Family structure

There were 7.3 million families in Australia in June 2022. Nationally, 36.9 per cent of families had at least one child aged under 15 years, and 16.4 per cent of families had at least one child aged under 5 years (table 2A.10). Lone parent families might have a greater need for government support and particular types of government services (such as child care for respite reasons). Nationally in June 2022, 19.0 per cent of families with children aged under 15 years were lone parent families (table 2A.11).

Employment status also has implications for the financial independence of families. Nationally in June 2022, in 3.4 per cent of couple families with children under 15 years neither parent was employed. For lone parent families with children under 15 years, in 4.5 per cent of families the parent was unemployed (table 2A.12).

Household profile

There were a projected 10.1 million households in Australia at 30 June 2022 (based on the 2016 Census), and 25.0 per cent of these were lone person households (table 2A.14). As at 30 June 2022, the proportion of people aged 65 years or over who lived alone (24.3 per cent) was around three times higher than the proportion for people aged 15–64 years (8.4 per cent).

Income and employment


Nationally in August 2021, 16.8 per cent of people aged 15 years or over had a relatively low weekly individual income of $299 or less (table 2A.16). The proportion was higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (24.7 per cent) and more than four times higher for younger people (73.9 per cent for people aged 15–19 years) (tables 2A.17 and 2A.18).

Nationally, 17.3 per cent of the total population was receiving income support in June 2022, a decrease from 18.2 per cent in June 2021 due to the reduction in the proportion of people receiving a labour market program allowance (a decrease from 4.3 per cent in 2021 to 3.5 per cent in 2022) and a reduction in the proportion of people receiving the age pension (a decrease from 10.1 per cent in 2021 to 9.9 per cent in 2022) (table 2A.19).

Employment and workforce participation

Of the 14.1 million people aged 15 years or over in the labour force in Australia in June 2022, 96.6 per cent were employed. The majority of employed people (69.5 per cent) were in full-time employment. Nationally, the unemployment rate was 3.4 per cent (table 2A.24). The unemployment rate needs to be interpreted within the context of labour force participation rates (the proportion of the working age population either in employment or actively looking for work). The labour force participation rate for Australia was 66.8 per cent in June 2022 (table 2A.24). When compared to June 2021, the unemployment rate has decreased (from 4.8 per cent) and the labour force participation rate has increased (from 66.3 per cent). These changes reflect, at least in part, the improvement in labour market activity since 2021 with the lifting of COVID‑19 related social distancing and other business restrictions, increasing people's hours, availability for work or ability to look for work (AIHW 2021)2.

Income and employment are strongly influenced by education. Census data on highest level of schooling and type of educational institution attended are available in tables 2A.20–23. Additional educational data are also available in Part B of this Report (Child care, education and training).


    1. Population data in this Report are based on Census of Population and Housing counts, undertaken in August every five years, and updated in intervening years. Due to the phased release of Census data, in some years, population data for some groups (such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, or people experiencing homelessness) may be based on older Census releases than other key population data. Locate Footnote 1 above
    2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2021, Australia’s welfare 2021 data insights. Australia’s welfare series no. 15. Cat. no. AUS 236, Canberra. Locate Footnote 2 above

    Publications feedback

    We value your comments about this publication and encourage you to provide feedback.

    Submit publications feedback