Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: Some Preliminary Observations
Productivity Commission submission
This submission to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade was released in November 2000.
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The Commission's approach
What is the problem?
Is the Protocol cost-effective?
Definition of living modified organisms
Import decision making provisions
Handling, transport, packaging and identification requirements
Requirements to provide information to a Biosafety Clearing House
The Protocol's uncertain relationship with the SPS Agreement
What if Australia does not sign and ratify the Protocol?
Table 1 Genetically modified crop area by country
Table 2 Genetically modified crop area by crop
Table 3 Principal traits in genetically modified crops in 1999
Figure 1 Total area of farm land in Australia, 1960/61 to 1998/99
Figure 2 Average wheat yields since 1870
Figure 3 Contributions to average annual growth in real output by the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector 1974-75 to 1997-98